What happens when you turn on a light switch? Electricity travels quickly through wiring that makes a lightbulb glow! The heart works in a similar way. There is a small amount of electricity that moves through a pathway that starts at the top of the heart and travels to the bottom, causing the heart to beat. These electrical signals are called heart rhythms and can be seen when you are connected to an EKG or heart monitor.
Sometimes patients with heart failure will have abnormal heart rhythms or their doctor feels like they are at increased risk of having a life-threatening heart rhythm. When a heart rhythm isn’t normal (called arrhythmia), it can cause the heart to beat too slowly (bradycardia), too quickly (tachycardia), or abnormally (dysrhythmia). Also, if the pathway is blocked between the upper and lower parts of the heart, the heart may beat at different rates (called a heart block). A pacemaker or automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) can correct the electrical activity and fix abnormal heart rhythms.
An arrhythmia can cause symptoms like fluttering in the chest, dizziness, tiredness, or may even cause fainting. Some arrhythmias are life-threatening and may cause the heart to quiver, which prevents blood from getting to the brain and body. This is considered an emergency situation that requires a defibrillator to shock the heart to reset the rhythm immediately.
Pacemakers monitor the heart’s rhythm and send a low voltage electrical signal to the heart to “pace” the heart into a correct rhythm. Pacemakers can be used for a short or long amount of time and can be placed internally (inside the body) or externally (outside the body). The short-term external pacemakers are typically used:
The long-term internal pacemaker is a small device with wires that lead to the heart chambers. It is implanted into the chest or belly to help the heart beat at a normal rhythm. Pacemakers typically last for many years.
Pacemakers deliver low voltage impulses to correct the heart rhythm. However, an ICD detects lethal arrhythmias and delivers high voltage shocks to reset the heart rhythm during a life-threatening emergency.
The pacemaker or ICD implant surgery is a minor surgery when placed through a vessel. Often this procedure is done quickly, however times will vary per patient. During the procedure, the surgeon makes an incision into the skin, places the wires inside the heart chambers, and inserts the small device underneath the skin. The pacemaker or ICD is turned on and the settings are adjusted. Afterwards, the incision is closed. There are some restrictions in activity level for a short time after surgery, but normal activity may resume within a few weeks after implant.
Benefits of having a Pacemaker/ICD include:
Risks related to Pacemaker/ICD surgery include: